PPAP Production Part Approval Process
PPAP abbreviation of Production Part Approval Process, is one of the tools also known as Core Tools and is used in the supply chain to establish the confidence of the components and production processes of the suppliers mainly of the automotive sector, this is a requirement of the IATF 16949 technical specification.
Although many companies have their own specific requirements, the AIAG has developed a common PPAP standard as part of the advanced product quality planning better known as APQP; this encourages the use of standard forms and terminology for project documentation.
The PPAP process is designed to demonstrate that the component supplier has developed its design and production process to meet the client’s needs, minimizing the risk of non-compliance by effective use of APQP.
The 18 elements of PPAP:
- Design Records: a copy of the drawing. If the customer is responsible for this design it is a copy of the customer’s plan that is sent along with the purchase order (PO). If the provider is responsible for the design, it is a drawing published in the supplier’s release system.
- Engineering change authorization: a document that shows the detailed description of the change. Generally, this document is called “Notification of engineering changes”
- Engineering approval: this approval is generally the engineering judgment with production pieces made at the customer’s plant.
- DFMEA: a copy of the DFMEA analysis and design failure mode, reviewed and signed by the supplier and the client.
- Process Flow Diagram: a copy of the process flow, indicating all steps and sequence in the manufacturing process, including the incoming components.
- PFMEA: a copy of the PFMEA analysis and production failure mode, reviewed and signed by the supplier and the customer. The PFMEA follows the steps of process flow, and indicates “what could go wrong” during the manufacture and assembly of each component.
- Control Plan: a copy of the Control Plan, reviewed and signed by the supplier and the client. The Control Plan follows the PFMEA steps, and provides more details on how the “potential problems” are verified in the input quality assembly process, or in the inspections of finished products.
- Measurement Analysis System (MSA): generally contains the R & R study of the critical characteristics, and a confirmation that the indicators used to measure these characteristics are calibrated.
- Dimensional Results: a list of all the dimensions recorded in the drawing. This list shows the product characteristic, the specification, the results of the measurement and the evaluation of the sample if this dimension is “good” or “bad”.
- Records of Materials / Tests: a summary of each test performed in the part. This summary is usually found in the DVP & R (Design Verification Plan and Report) form, which lists each individual test, when it was carried out, the specification, the results and the assessment of aptitude / failure. If there is an engineering specification, it is usually observed in the print.
- Initial Studies of the Process: in general, this section shows all the statistical graphs of process control that affect the most important characteristics of the product.
- Qualified Laboratory Documentation: copy of all laboratory certifications where the tests reported in section 10 are performed.
- Appearance Approval Report: a copy of the AAI (approval of the Appearance Inspection), signed by the client. Applicable for components that affect appearance only.
- Sample pieces: a sample of the initial production lot.
- Masterpiece: a sample signed by the client and the supplier, which is usually used to train the operators of the inspections.
- Verification aids: when there are special tools to verify the parts, this section shows an image of the tool records and the calibration, including the dimensional report of the tool.
- Specific customer requirements: Each customer may have specific requirements that are included in the PPAP package.
- Part Submission Warrant (PSW): This is the form that summarizes the entire PPAP package. This form shows the reason for the submission (design change, annual revalidation, etc.) and the level of the documents presented to the client. If there is any deviation, the provider must write it down in the PSW or inform that PPAP can not be presented.
There are 5 levels of PPAP, these are the following: